Delicate Balance: Managing the Needs of ELL students (page 3)

By — State: Maine Department of Education
Updated on Apr 27, 2012


When all students are viewed along the same continuum of English language proficiency, teachers become more connected and programs become more cohesive. By integrating ELLs into the larger school community, all teachers develop an awareness of the important role of academic language in content classes. Within this new instructional environment, ESL teachers can continue to help students develop English language proficiency skills, while also collaborating with colleagues to support planning, instruction, and assessment that serve all students — including ELLs.


Cummins, J. (1984). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles, Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Los Angeles, CA:Author.

Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.

Freeman, D. (2004). Teaching in the context of English language learners. In Sadowski, M. (Ed.) Teaching immigrant and second-language students: Strategies for success. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition Instruction Educational Programs(NCELA). (2006). NCELA frequently asked questions. Available at

Perie, M., Grigg, W.S., & Donahue, P.L. (2005). The nation’s report card: Reading 2005 (NCES 2006–451). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Rueda, R. (1998). Standards for professional development: A sociocultural perspective (Research Brief No. 2). Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.

Short, D. & Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the work: Challenges and solutions to acquiring language and academic literacy for adolescent English language learners – A report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York.Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

TESOL (2006). PreK-12 English language proficiency standards, an augmentation of the WIDA English language proficiency standards. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

Thomas, W.P. & Collier, V. (1997). School effectiveness for language minority students. (NCBE Resource Collection Series No. 9). Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Available at

Thomas, W.P. & Collier, V. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence. 

WIDA Consortium (2007). WIDA English language proficiency standards. Available at

View Full Article
Add your own comment
DIY Worksheets
Make puzzles and printables that are educational, personal, and fun!
Matching Lists
Quickly create fun match-up worksheets using your own words.
Word Searches
Use your own word lists to create and print custom word searches.
Crossword Puzzles
Make custom crossword puzzles using your own words and clues.