Connecting Bottom-Up and Subskills Phonics-First Reading Instructional Practices
Bottom-Up Theories of the Reading Process
- During reading and learning to read, language is processed from the parts to the whole, as in builiding a structure from blocks one at a time.
- Learning to read is based on stimulus-response chains posited by behaviorists.
- Learning to read is accomplished by reducing the skill of reading to its smallest parts to be mastered one at a time.
- Repetition in reading is focued on practicing the parts of the complex skill of reading to a level of overlearning or automaticity.
- Language stimuli for reading are carfully contolled to represent consistently identified language rules or patterns to be learned.
- Mastery of the smallest parts of reading is assumed to lead to competent understanding and performance of the whole act of reading.
- Automatic decoding of the smallest parts of language is a prerequisite to reading and comprehending connected texts or books.
- Correctness is expected; mistakes are to be corrected.
- Pronouncing words provides access to one's speaking vocabulary to enable comprehension.
- Comprehending words provides access to new vocabulary words and comprehension of text.
Subskills of Phonics-First Reading Instructional Practices
- Reading instruction is begun by learning the 26 letters and the 44 sounds.
- Instruction proceeds to demonstrate the association(s) between the 26 letters and the 44 sounds.
- Blending the sounds represented by the letters in a word from left to right in temporal sequence or "sounding out" phonically regualr words is taught.
- A limited number of high-frequency sight words are taught.
- Texts composed of carefully controlled words that are either known sight words or are phonically regualr words are introduced to children for reading practice.
- More phonic patterns, rules and generalizations are taught and learned.
- Texts are controlled to include new words as application for the patterns, rules, or generalizations learned.
- Control over text is gradually released, allowing phonically irregular words.
- Comprehending text is a direct outgrowth from the ability to pronounce words.
© ______ 2005, Allyn & Bacon, an imprint of Pearson Education Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. The reproduction, duplication, or distribution of this material by any means including but not limited to email and blogs is strictly prohibited without the explicit permission of the publisher.
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