The Components of Balanced Literacy (page 2)
What Does Balanced Literacy Actually Mean?
Often when I visit schools and ask teachers to describe their curriculum to me, they’ll say that they do “balanced literacy.” I often ask them what they mean by “balanced.” The answers I get are varied. Their varied answers don’t surprise me because as I worked on this article I discovered a variety of views as to what the word balanced in “balanced literacy” actually means.
One explanation of balanced I found was the idea that in balanced literacy you are balancing certain kinds of curricula with other kinds of curricula (e.g., Hiebert and Cole) 1989. Another definition emphasized the balancing of teacher-initiated activities with student-initiated activities (e.g., Spiegel, 1994) Balance has also been defined as equally weighing curriculum with instruction where the types of curriculum and instruction have been viewed before as antithetical (e.g., Baumann and Ivey, 1997). More recent definitions of balance have included much of the above but have also emphasized assessment as a key factor in planning for an appropriate balance (Raphael and Pearson, 1997).
Most recently, Spiegel has defined balance as a “decision making approach through which the teacher makes thoughtful choices each day about the best way to help each child become a better reader and writer” (Spiegel, 1998). Throughout this article, you’ll see that I emphasize Spiegel’s definition of balance. I believe in order to get the appropriate balance in balanced literacy, you must make thoughtful decisions each day about the best way to help your students become more skillful readers and writers.
The first question then is, What reading and writing knowledge do our students need if they are to become skillful readers and writers? I explored how both readers and writers use meaning, structure, and visual sources of information. These same sources of information can, of course, help us to understand what to plan for in the components of balanced literacy so that we make sure that our students are progressively becoming more skillful readers and writers.
The Components of Balanced Literacy
Shared Writing Read-Aloud The teacher composes a variety of texts with her students. She often models her thinking as she writes. The students participate by listening to the teacher’s thought process and then trying some strategies in order to help compose the text. The teacher writes the text, therefore taking away the visual sources of information, so that students can focus on using meaning and structure as they compose meaning into the text that is being written. The teacher reads aloud various types of text. He often models his thinking aloud as he reads. The students participate by listening to the text and the teacher’s thinking strategies, and then trying some of them out by talking with partners. The teacher reads the text, therefore taking away the visual sources of information, so that students can focus on meaning and structure.
- Shared Writing and Read-Aloud both focus on building up students' independence in the meaning and structure sources of information.
Shared Reading The teacher composes an enlarged text with the students. The students participate by writing parts of the text. The teacher writes what is too easy or too difficult for the students. The teacher builds the meaning and the structure up, so that students can bring in the visual sources of information as they compose meaning into a text. The teacher reads an enlarged text aloud. The students participate by reading along, using strategies when they encounter difficulty. The teacher builds the meaning and structure up, so that students can bring in the visual sources of information as they compose meaning from a text.
- Interactive Writing and Shared Reading both focus on building up students' independence in the visual sources of information.
Writing Workshop Reading Workshop
- Work time
Students are working independently or in partnerships.
Teachers are working one on one, and with small groups, teaching them strategies that will improve the quality of their writing.
- Work time
Students are working independently or in partnerships.
Teachers are working one on one, and with small groups, teaching them strategies that will improve the quality of their reading.
- Both have the same structure.
- In both, teachers work with individuals and small groups.
- In both, students are expected to use meaning, structure, and visual sources of information independently to compose meaning into and from texts.
The next question, then, is, How do we use the components of balanced literacy to teach our students more about meaning, structure, and visual sources of information? If we are to teach inside each of these components in powerful but different ways, then each component must be used to highlight a different source of information. When I practice yoga, different poses highlight different body parts. Half Moon Pose works on upper body strength. Awkward Pose works on leg strength, and Eagle Pose works on balance. My whole body is now strong because there is a particular pose that lets me work on just one area at a time.
Our students need the same scaffolds inside of the components that I had in yoga. They need components in which they work mainly on meaning and structure sources of information. They also need components in which they work mainly on visual sources of information. And finally, they need components that help them “put it all together.” I’ve made clear delineations between the components, fully aware that in your classroom the lines might be a bit blurrier. Keep these delineations in mind, however, as they will focus your instruction.
Some teachers have wondered if it would make sense to start with some components of balanced literacy and, as the students grow in their knowledge, add more components. Marilyn Adams reminds us that this is not a wise idea. She states that “the parts of the reading system must grow together. They must grow to one another and from one another. In order for the connection and even the connected parts to develop properly they must be developed conjointly. They must be linked together in the very course of acquisition” (Adams, 1990, p. 6). As we look at the components of balanced literacy, keep in mind that your students will be most successful if they’re practicing all of the components simultaneously.
Looking at Components that Connect
When Patricia Cunningham came to speak to an audience of teachers at the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project (2003), she talked about how people learn new things. “Learners,” she said, “need to know what they are doing and why they are doing it. They need to have cognitive clarity.” And although this doesn’t surprise me, it is at the forefront of my mind as I write this chapter. You’ll see that I’ll describe each component so that you, the learner, will have cognitive clarity. You’ll see what each component is and why you would do that particular component with your students—specifically, which sources of information are being addressed.
Teachers who have read this article suggested that I provide examples of strategies you might teach in different components. When I tried to make a list, I realized that everything we could teach students about reading and writing could be categorized underneath particular components. What I’ve tried to do instead is give you a short list of other strategies you might teach in different components, knowing that over time you’ll add many new ideas to each of these lists. I also tried to match strategies across reading and writing components. For example, you’ll see that Shared Writing and Read-Aloud share many similar strategies; however, Shared Writing will approach the strategy from a writing angle and Read-Aloud will of course approach the same strategy from a reading angle. Finally, you’ll see the connection between the reading and writing components and how each component enhances and adds to the others. Hopefully, seeing this will help make your planning for the components of balanced literacy more efficient and more effective.
Shared Writing: Highlighting meaning and structure sources of information.
In Shared Writing, the teacher composes a variety of texts with her students. This is different from language experience in that the teacher is not simply acting as a scribe for her students, but is jointly composing the text with her students. The goal of Shared Writing is to help students develop composing strategies that will move them from using oral language to more literary language.
The teacher models her thinking aloud as she writes, so that the students see an experienced writer’s thought process. The students participate by listening to the teacher’s thought process. Then, they often speak (either in partnerships or in whole-class discussions), trying out those same strategies with the teacher’s assistance. The teacher acts as a scribe; therefore, she is doing the visual (or graphophonic) work of writing so that students can focus on strengthening the ways in they use meaning and structure as they speak. This work will certain improve the ways in which the students use meaning and structure while writing independently.
Often when I describe Shared Writing in this manner, teachers look perplexed. “I’ve never used Shared Writing as a place to teach the composing process,” they’ll say. “I’ve used it to model spelling strategies. I’ve used it to model how what we say can be written down. I’ve used it to model capitals, lowercase, periods, commas, but never to just teach students how to write in detailed, structured ways.”
In Shared Writing, the teacher’s job is to write the text for the students and scaffold what the students say. The students’ job is to use both meaning and structure sources of information while speaking to compose meaning.
Read-Aloud: Highlighting meaning and structure sources of information.
Just as Shared Writing develops students’ understanding of how to use meaning and structure when they write, Read-Aloud strengthens students’ understanding of how to use meaning and structure when they read. Because these two components are so similar, they will enhance or improve one another. During Read-Aloud, the teacher reads aloud various types of texts. She often models her thinking aloud as she reads. The students participate by listening to the text and the teacher’s thinking strategies. They often talk about the book (either in partnerships or in whole-class discussions), trying out the similar types of thinking that their teacher previously modeled. The teacher reads the text; therefore, she is doing the visual (or graphophonic) work of reading. The students can then focus on listening using meaning and structure to help them comprehend the text. Next, let’s take a look as Millie conducts a Read-Aloud with her first grade class.
The teacher’s job during Read-Aloud is to read the words of the text and extend what students say. The students’ job is to listen and use talk to further their comprehension.
Shared Writing and Read-Aloud are similar because they both help develop students’ understanding of how to use meaning and structure as they read and write.
Because they are similar they have the potential to enhance or improve one another. For example, if Maria wanted to enhance the work that she did with putting like information together, she might conduct a Read-Aloud asking students to listen to like information and try to comprehend it. If Millie wanted to enhance the work that she did in her Read-Aloud, she might conduct a Shared Writing session in which they would work together to compose a text that was elaborated upon.
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