Computer Play and the Internet (page 2)
Technology is transforming our imagination and our culture. We have virtually instant access to anything known, thought, or felt and, consequently, powers that were earlier described as magical. The future of this magic compels us to learn a new language of mixed meanings, ambiguities, and confusion of tongues (Pesce, 2000). Computers, the Internet, video games, and electronic toys are the new electronic playgrounds for children, combining three forms of games: practice, symbolic, and rule governed. They are also the new information network, requiring a great deal of practice to gain mastery for advancement. They allow players to engage in the as-if quality of fantasy worlds. They present a set of rules that must be discovered and mastered to win the game. The convergence of these three forms of game playing sets video games apart from traditional toys, and this combination of features may help explain the appeal that video games hold for children (Kafai, 1998). Malone and Lepper (1987) identified fantasy, challenge, curiosity, and control as major features attracting children.
Issues about appropriateness of computers and video games for preschool children are passionately debated. There is little question that preschool children can use appropriate computer programs (Clements & Nastasi, 1992). The critical issues are how and to what extent they should use them and what role computer use will play in their lives.
When computers are used appropriately in the context of complementary resources, they can have positive effects on self-esteem (Clements, Nastasi, & Swaminathan, 1993), intelligence (Haugland, 1992), creativity (Haugland, 1992; Reimer, 1985), literacy (Fein, 1987), problem-solving skills (Clements, 1986), exploration (Escobedo, 1992), use of tools in playful ways (Henniger, 1994), and provision of microworlds for children’s learning (Baird & Silvern, 1990). Computers also hold possibilities for broadening imagination and skills, even for young children. Guided play is a valuable tool for sustaining the joy of childhood while building foundations for cognitive and social development (Singer & Singer, 2005).
Despite the evidence of positive results from computer access and use, the Alliance for Childhood (2000) published a critical analysis of computers in education, and called for a moratorium on further introduction of computers in early childhood and elementary education. It claimed that computers pose serious health problems for children including eyestrain, obesity, repetitive stress injuries, and possible physical, emotional, and intellectual damage. Additional side effects include taking time from play, physical activity, and bonding with adults. The Alliance position focuses on the need for children to develop imaginative thinking, critical skills, personal interactions with adults, and engaging their hearts, minds, bodies, and hands in personal interactions not commonly received in computer activities. Too much of their computer interaction is with inappropriate adult content, aggressive advertising, and trivial games.
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation (2001), examined both sides of the issue and concluded that the growing use of computers raises both the promise of enriched learning and the risk of possible harm. Children in low socioeconomic area schools and homes generally have more limited access to equipment and fewer opportunities to use computers than more privileged children. A major problem in schools is the lack of computer training for teachers. They also warn against possible hampered social development, depression, loneliness, obesity related to inactivity, and repetitive motion injuries. They do not believe that sufficient research is available to predict the long-term effects on children’s social, physical, and cognitive development.
Technology is obviously a two-edged sword, offering both advantages and disadvantages (Ginsburg, 2001; Silvern, 1998). Computers can exert pressure on young children and detract from them valuable life experiences such as free play, art, music, and social interaction (Barnes & Hill, 1983; Brady & Hill, 1984; Elkind, 1981, 1985). Elkind warns that computers should not be allowed to replace traditional play activities, time for interaction with teachers, or give false impressions about children’s thinking abilities. Seiter (2005) argues that the Internet, allowing online chat and instant messaging, is an appallingly aggressive marketer to children and an educational boondoggle. In 2006, news reports from across the country detailed growing incidences of adult child molesters luring teenage children to sexual encounters via online chat rooms.
Haugland and Shade (1988), Dodge, Colker, and Heroman (2002), and Fischer and Gillespie (2003) offer guidelines for selecting computer programs that are congruent with the National
Association for the Education of Young Children’s (NAEYC) Developmentally Appropriate Practices (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997).
Developmentally appropriate soft-ware has the following features:
- Contains simple and spoken directions.
- Allows independent exploration and discovery.
- Is open ended and allows children to maintain control.
- Provides many opportunities for problem solving.
- Allows children to impact the program through a variety of responses.
- Emphasizes the process of discovery.
- Teaches cause-and-effect relationships.
In addition, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (1996) Position Statement on Technology and Young Children recommends that violent themes be avoided and that content reflect diverse cultures, ages, abilities, and family styles.
Parents, teachers, and other adults must assume responsibility for guiding children in their use of computers. Guidelines are available from a number of sources, including the American Library Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the ERIC Clearinghouses on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education (2000), and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (2001).
Guidelines for adults include the following:
- Stay involved in children’s computer activities including Websites, chat rooms, and computer games.
- Complement computer time with other developmentally appropriate activities, including physical activity.
- Place computers in areas that adults frequent regularly.
- Monitor and discuss the content of Websites with children and help them understand the limits imposed.
- Use filtering hardware to help ensure that objectionable material is not viewed by children.
- Seek help in selecting appropriate content for children.
- Pay attention to the food that children eat during computer use. Replace junk food with nutritious snacks.
- Pay attention to the emotions of children engaged in computer use. Look for signs of fatigue, eyestrain, and so on.
- Place limits on the amount of time that children use computers.
The guidelines for use of computers and software just noted apply generally to the selection and use of the Internet. Fortunately, research on use patterns is expanding and guidelines are becoming more reliable. The Internet itself is the best, quickest source of research about the Internet with unlimited resources available to assist people of all ages in securing information on virtually any topic.
There are potential risks for children going online, including exposure to sex and violence, pornographic peddlers, commercialism, and excessive isolation. Yet the Internet can be a useful tool in developing social, cognitive, and literacy skills (NAEYC, 1998b), in increasing family and public involvement in the schools, and in meeting the educational needs of diverse groups of students (National School Boards Foundation, 2002).
A national survey of 1,735 households nationwide (National School Boards Foundation, 2002) revealed a mostly positive picture of Internet usage by children ages 9 to 17. In about half of the households, one or more children were online, with the percentage growing to three of four teenagers. Parents and children told the researchers,
- Families buy computers for education.
- The Internet does not disrupt healthy activities.
- The Internet does not isolate children.
- Girls and boys use the Internet equally but in different ways.
- Parents trust their children’s use of the Internet.
- Most view the Internet as a valuable new tool.
Bear in mind that these conclusions reflect responses from households to a survey and do not include direct observations of children’s Internet usage. All adults involved in children’s education, especially parents and teachers, should focus on positive, constructive ways to use the Internet while remaining vigilant to possible misuse:
- Know what children are watching.
- Keep computers in open spaces where adults will be present on a regular basis.
- Discuss Internet content with children and help them develop educational projects that include Internet use.
- Balance Internet use with a range of activities that involve books, hands-on projects, and projects that require physical activity.
- Help children sort out fact from fiction in what they see on the Internet.
- Learn Internet skills so you can assist beginners and participate in some of their projects.•
- Install filtering hardware to shield children from objectionable content.
- Help children learn to shield their identity when using the Internet.
- Know about the “friends” your children are communicating with on the Internet.
- Develop plans for interaction between schools and homes on Internet usage. Open up communication via Internet as well as Page Number:85
through direct person-to-person contacts between parents and teachers.
- Involve children in setting policies for using the Internet at home and school.
- Help develop training classes for unskilled and minimally skilled parents and teachers.
© ______ 2008, Merrill, an imprint of Pearson Education Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. The reproduction, duplication, or distribution of this material by any means including but not limited to email and blogs is strictly prohibited without the explicit permission of the publisher.
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