Enhancing Students’ Attitudes About Bullying Using the P3R Classroom Resource (page 2)

By — Bullying Special Edition Contributor
Updated on Apr 27, 2010

Our Results

To examine change in students’ at-risk-for-bullying-elevation responses regarding attitudes towards bullies, victims, bullying in general, and their school’s efforts regarding bullying, we analyzed the data from the pre- and post-test scores from each of the BAS and PSERBS items.

For the intervention group, results indicated significant changes in 7 BAS items and 2 PSERBS items; for the control group, results indicated significant differences in only 2 BAS items and 0 PSERBS items.  The intervention group changed their attitudes on the following items:

  • Most people who get bullied ask for it.
  • Bullying is a problem for kids.
  • Bullies hurt kids.
  • I think bullies should be punished.
  • Bullies make kids feel bad.
  • I feel sorry for kids who are bullied.
  • Being bullied is no big deal.
  • Adults at my school help to support kids who are bullied.
  • Policies and rules at my school help to minimize bullying.

Whereas, the control group changed their attitudes only the following two items:

  • Most people who get bullied ask for it.
  • Bullies don’t mean to hurt anybody.

Given that the intervention group revealed significant changes on the majority of attitudinal items while the control group revealed such changes on only a couple items, the intervention was associated with positive changes and deemed to be successful.

These results suggest that the P3R Classroom Resource is a promising school-based intervention that warrants further empirical investigation. Ultimately, these results suggest that P3R may be an effective intervention for facilitating changes in students’ attitudes regarding bullies, victims, bullying in general, and their school efforts surrounding bullying. And such attitudinal changes, if maintained, may contribute to reduced bullying behavior, contributing to better outcomes for students and safer school climates.  


1) Faull, C., Swearer, S. M., Jimerson, S. R., Espelage, D. L., & Ng, R. (2008). Promoting positive peer relationships: Middle school bullying prevention program—Classroom resource. USA: Readymade Productions Ltd. 

2) Merrell, K. W., Guelder, B. A., Ross, S. W., & Isava, D. M. (2008). How effective are school bullying intervention programs? A meta-analysis of intervention research. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 26-42.

3) Oprinas, P., & Horne, A. M. (in press). Creating a positive school climate and developing social competence. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), The Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge.

4) Suldo, S. M., Huebner, E. S., Friedrich, A. A., & Gilman, R. (2009). Life satisfaction. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 27-35). New York: Routledge.

View Full Article
Add your own comment