Measuring Students’ Self-Efficacy in Bullying Situations (page 3)

By — Bullying Special Edition Contributor
Updated on Jul 11, 2011


Results of this study indicated that the students believed that they could talk to adults and get help when they were bullied. These children also believed that they understood when their friends were teasing or bullying and knew what to do when bullied. However, these students reported that they were not confident that they could talk to or confront a bully. Future research is needed to investigate if talking to the bully can be an effective coping strategy to stop and/or prevent bullying and under what circumstances.

The KBSES is still at an early stage of development and needs to be administered to larger numbers of students to confirm its psychometric properties. We suggest further research on the KBSES could be done in the following three areas:

  • Study how the three subscales of the KBSES can guide intervention and counseling for victims of bullying. For example, a student who has high scores on the Knowledge and Action subscales but a low score on the subscale of Social Resources would need help identifying and using various social resources around them ( teachers and friends for example).
  • Administer the KBSES to more students in different areas of the country.
  • Compare a group of students who have been victimized by bullying with a comparison group of students who have not been victimized by bullying to examine differences in KBSES scores.

Implications for School Personnel

The KBSES could provide schools with valuable data about students’ confidence that they can handle bullying situations. This information could allow for the following benefits:

  • Greater prevention of bullying by screening a group of students and then customizing interventions to students based on the results. School personnel could screen an entire school, a whole classroom, or individuals to gain insight about their self-efficacy. lead to broad information about what skills the students have and what skills the students may need to improve.
  • More effective evaluation of bullying prevention programs that are targeted for the entire elementary school, a small group of victims or for intervention with individual victims of bullying.
  • More tailored interventions for the student by focusing time and resources on those who have the most need in the areas that need the most improvement.


1. Andreou, E. (2004). Bully/victim problems and their association with Machiavellianism and self efficacy in Greek primary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 297-309.

2. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

3. Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., & Simon, T. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 341-362.

4. Caprara, G., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (2002). Longitudinal impact of perceived self regulatory efficacy on violent conduct. European Psychologist, 7, 63-69.

5. Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoè, G. (2008). Determinants of adolescents’ active defending and   passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 93-105.

6. Holt, M., & Espelage, D. (2007). Perceived social support among bullies, victims, and bully victims. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 36, 984-994.

7. Jagers, R., Sydnor, K., Mouttapa, M., & Flay, B. (2007). Protective factors associated with preadolescent   violence: Preliminary work on a cultural model. American Journal of   Community Psychology, 40, 38-145.

8. Kim, S., Varjas, K., Henrich, C., & Meyers, J. (2010) The Kim Bullying Self-Efficacy Scale:A pilot and validation study with elementary school students. Manuscript in Preparation.

9. Olweus, D. (1994). Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 1171-1190.

10. Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 139-158.

11. Pajares, F. (2006). Self-Efficacy during childhood and adolescence: Implications for teachers and parents. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Adolescence and education, Vol. 5: Self-efficacy and adolescence (pp. 339-367). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

12. Reynolds, C. R. & Kamphaus, R. (2004). The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children: Second Edition. Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing Inc.

13. Rigby, K. & Johnson, B. (2006). Expressed readiness of austrailian schoolchildren to act as bystanders in support of children who are being bullied. Educational Psychology, 26, 425-440.

14. Varjas, K., Meyers, J., & Hunt, M. (2006). Student Survey of Bullying Behavior – Revised 2 (SSBB-R2). Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, Center for Research on School Safety, School Climate and Classroom Management.

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