Grammar Mechanics for Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Test Study Guide (page 2)
Knowing the mechanics of language means getting down to basics—the rules of punctuation and capitalization. Punctuation marks are standardized marks that clarify meaning for your reader, serving as traffic signs that direct the reader to pause, connect, stop, consider, and go. Although most likely you have studied and learned many of the basic rules of punctuation and capitalization, this section will cover some common problem areas that may appear on the PPST exam, including misuse of commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, and capitalization.
Commas create pauses, clarify meaning, and separate different parts of a sentence. The comma splice is a common misuse of the comma. For the PPST exam, remember the six basic rules for using commas outlined on the following page.
Use a comma:
- To separate independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, such as and, but, nor, so, for, or or. Use a comma before the conjunction.
- My instinct was to solve the problem slowly and deliberately, but we only had a week before the deadline.
- To set off nonessential clauses. A nonessential clause is one that can be removed from a sentence without changing its meaning.
- My friend Rebecca, who is active in the local labor union, is a fifth-grade teacher.
- To set off words or phrases that interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence.
- The certification program, however, works well for me.
- Elena Alvarez, my adviser and mentor, was present at the meeting.
- To set off an introductory element, such as a word or phrase that comes at the beginning of a sentence
- Thrilled by the results, Phin presented the study to his colleagues.
- To set apart a series of words in a list. Usually, the last item in a list is preceded by a conjunction. Although a comma is not necessary before the conjunction, it is preferred that you use one.
- Micah, Jose, and Sam attended the conference.
- Micah, Jose and Sam attended the conference.
- To separate elements of dates and addresses. Commas are used to separate dates that include the day, month, and year. Dates that include just the month and year do not need commas. When the name of a city and state are included in an address, set off both with commas.
- Margaret moved to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, for the job.
- Maco came to Greensboro on June 15, 2004, right after she graduated from the program.
- Maco came to Greensboro in June 2004 after she graduated from the program.
You may be asked to recognize errors involving the use of semicolons on the PPST Writing test. Review how to use this mark correctly in the following guidelines and examples:
- Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction.
- Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses that contain commas, even if the clauses are joined by a conjunction.
- Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses connected with a conjunctive adverb, such as however, therefore, then, thus, or moreover.
Colons are used to introduce elements and to show an equivalent relationship (almost like an equal sign in math). Follow these guidelines to recognize the correct use of commas:
- Use a colon to introduce a list when the clause before the colon can stand as a complete sentence.
- These are the first-year teachers: Ellen, Ben, and Eliza.
- The first-year teachers are Ellen, Ben, and Eliza. (No colon here.)
- Use a colon to introduce a restatement or elaboration of the previous clause.
- James enjoys teaching Measure for Measure each spring: it is his favorite play.
- Use a colon to introduce a word, phrase, or clause that adds emphasis to the main body of the sentence.
- Carrie framed the check: it was the first paycheck she had ever earned.
- Use a colon to introduce a formal quotation.
- Writer Gurney Williams offered this advice to parents: "Teaching creativity to your child isn't like teaching good manners. No one can paint a masterpiece by bowing to another person's precepts about elbows on the table."
Use the punctuation guidelines you have reviewed to answer this practice question.
- Alternative medicine includes a range of practices outside of conventional medicine such as a herbs homeopathy, massage, yoga, and acupuncture increasing appeal for Americans.
Choice c is the correct answer. The semicolon does not work because it does not separate two independent clauses. It should be replaced with a comma, setting off the nonessential clause that begins with the word which.
Add your own comment
Today on Education.com
- Kindergarten Sight Words List
- The Five Warning Signs of Asperger's Syndrome
- What Makes a School Effective?
- Child Development Theories
- Why is Play Important? Social and Emotional Development, Physical Development, Creative Development
- 10 Fun Activities for Children with Autism
- Bullying in Schools
- Test Problems: Seven Reasons Why Standardized Tests Are Not Working
- Should Your Child Be Held Back a Grade? Know Your Rights
- First Grade Sight Words List