Nongenetic causes of hearing loss
Hearing loss falls into two causal categories: nongenetic and genetic (Andrews et al., 2004). The most common nongenetic causes are infections, Rh incompatibility, ototoxic drugs, prematurity, and noise-induced hearing loss, although noise-induced hearing losses are rarely found in children. The table below lists some of the characteristics of common nongenetic causes of hearing loss.
|Rubella||Eye, ear, brain, heart||Deaf-blindness, learning disabilities, idiosyncratic effect on residual hearing, impulsivity, distractibility|
|Meningitis||Ear, brain||Severe hearing loss, possible aphasia, distractibility, possible effect on vestibular system|
|Congenital toxoplasmosis||Eye, ear, brain||Eye scarring, microcephaly, seizures, stable or progressive hearing loss, motor and cognitive delays|
|Erythroblastosis fetalis||Ear, brain||Hearing loss, seizures, cerebral palsy, possible language problems|
|Ototoxic drugs||Ear, brain||Fetal alcohol syndrome; conductive or sensorineural hearing loss; mental retardation; learning, behavioral, and emotional difficulties|
|Prematurity||Eye, ear, brain||Vision impairments, hearing loss, cognitive and motor delays|
|Cytomegalovirus||Ear, eye brain||Hearing loss, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, motor difficulties, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, emotional problems|
|HIV||Ear, brain||Hearing loss, developmental delays|
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