Types of Grading Schemes (page 2)
The table below lists and describes different current approach to grading and provides the historical background for each type of grading scheme.
Types of Grading Schemes: Definitions and Historical Background
|Type of Grading||Definition||Historical Background|
|Percentage grading||Using a percentage scale (percent of 100), usually based on percent correct on exams and/or percent of points earned on assignments||
|Letter grading and variations||Using a series of letters (often A, B, C, D, F) or letters with plusses and minuses as an ordered category scale - can be done in a norm-referenced (standards-based) manner||
|Norm-referenced grading||Comparing students to each other; using class standing as the basis for assigning grades (usually letter grades)||
|Mastery grading||Grading students as “masters” or “passers” when their attainment reaches a prespecified level, usually allowing different amounts of time for different students to reach mastery||
|Pass/Fail||Using a scale with two levels (pass and fail), sometimes in connection with mastery grading||
|Standards (or Absolute-Standards) grading||Originally, comparing student performance to a preestablished standard (level) of performance; currently, standards grading sometimes means grading with reference to a list of state or district content standards according to preestablished performance levels||
|Narrative grading||Writing comments about students’ achievement, either in addition to or instead of using numbers or letters||
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