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To Test the Solubility of Common Liquid Solvents

based on 17 ratings
Author: Michael Calhoun

Grade Level: 4th - 6th; Type: Physical Science/Mathematics

Objective:

What is the project about?

Solutions are a special kind of mixture and solubility is a term used to describe the amount of materials (solids, liquids, or gas) which can be dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. The research aspect of this science fair project is to test the solubility of several common liquid substances.

What are the goals?

Several common liquids such as water, rubbing alcohol, and cub soda will have solids such as salts, sand, baking soda, etc added to them to determine which solids dissolves in which liquids at room temperature. Based on the results of this investigation a data table will be prepared and the results potted on a series of graphs. A rule of thumb for solubility in solvents is "like dissolves like." This means that in general, polar compounds are soluble in polar solvents and non-polar compounds are soluble in non-polar solvents. One practical benefit of the results of this project is to prove or disprove this rule.

Research Questions:

  • What is a solvent?
  • What is a solute?
  • Which solvent was able to dissolve most or all of the solutes?
  • Which solute was the most soluble in the solvents tested?
  • The term "universal solvent" means ability to dissolve most substances, which solvent tested would this name apply?

Solutions are a special kind of mixture and solubility is a term used to describe the amount of materials (solids, liquids, or gas) which can be dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. A solvent is the dissolving agent, e.g. water. A solute is a substance that is dissolved in a solution.

In this science fair project solutions in which the solvent is a liquid will be investigated. Most liquid solvents are molecular compounds. Whether a compound will dissolve in a particular solvent depends on what that solvent is. The rule of thumb for solubility in molecular solvents is "like dissolves like." This means that in general, polar compounds (chemical compounds whose molecules exhibit electrically positive characteristics at one extremity and negative characteristics at the other) are soluble in polar solvents and non-polar compounds are soluble in nonpolar solvents. Water is an example of a polar solvent. Cooking oil is an example of a nonpolar solvent. Water is the most commonly used liquid solvent. It is sometimes called the "universal solvent" because not only does it dissolve polar compounds, but because it is strongly polar and can even dissolve some ionic compounds.

Any required diagrams/pictures (Pictures speak a thousand words!)

Solutions are a special kind of mixture and solubility is a term used to describe the amount of materials (solids, liquids, or gas) which can be dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. A solvent is the dissolving agent, e.g. water. A solute is a substance that is dissolved in a solution.

In this science fair project solutions in which the solvent is a liquid will be investigated. Most liquid solvents are molecular compounds. Whether a compound will dissolve in a particular solvent depends on what that solvent is. The rule of thumb for solubility in molecular solvents is "like dissolves like." This means that in general, polar compounds (chemical compounds whose molecules exhibit electrically positive characteristics at one extremity and negative characteristics at the other) are soluble in polar solvents and non-polar compounds are soluble in nonpolar solvents. Water is an example of a polar solvent. Cooking oil is an example of a nonpolar solvent. Water is the most commonly used liquid solvent. It is sometimes called the "universal solvent" because not only does it dissolve polar compounds, but because it is strongly polar and can even dissolve some ionic compounds.

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