Lesson plan

Do You Know Your Math Facts?

In this lesson, your students will create their own math facts and practice them! They will understand that multiplication and division are opposites.
Need extra help for EL students? Try the Multiplication and Division Fact Families pre-lesson.
EL Adjustments
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Need extra help for EL students? Try the Multiplication and Division Fact Families pre-lesson.

Students will be able use their knowledge of the relationship between multiplication and division to fluently multiply and divide numbers within 100.

The adjustment to the whole group lesson is a modification to differentiate for children who are English learners.
EL adjustments
(4 minutes)
  • Instruct students to skip-count out loud by twos, threes, fours, fives, sixes, and tens.
  • Display a multiplication chart on the board for students who are not fluent.
  • Instruct them to read along.
(10 minutes)
  • Take out eight blocks and divide them by twos.
  • Ask students how many twos make eight.
  • When they answer four, explain that it's because 2 x 4 = 8
  • Show that if you just take the eight and divide it into groups of two, it will give you 8 ÷ 2 = 4.
  • Explain that this is because division and multiplication are opposites.
  • Explain that a multiplication and division fact that contain the same numbers make a fact family.
  • Demonstrate another example with the same method you did with 2 x 4 = 8.
  • Write 3 x 8 on the board. Instruct students to come up with the answer.
  • Instruct students to now turn 3 x 8 = 24 into a division fact.
  • After that, count by threes eight times.
(20 minutes)
  • Instruct students to get into groups of two. Give each group 10 index cards. Instruct each group to write a multiplication fact on the front and the opposite division fact on the back.
  • Model one card for the students.
  • Display the multiplication chart on the board for reference.
  • Give the students 10 minutes to create the cards.
  • After that, have each group put their cards in a sandwich bag.
  • Instruct students to gather on the floor with their bags and sit in a circle.
  • Go around the circle and label each bag with a consecutive number. Inform students that the number on the bag is their group number.
  • Explain to students that, on the first whistle, one partner will take the cards out of the bag and hold them up for the other partner to answer. On the second whistle, they will put the cards in the bag. On the third whistle, they will pass the bag to the next group.
  • Remind students that they need to switch roles and take turns asking and answering questions. For example, if person A asked for set one, then person B should ask for set two, and so on.
  • Have students rotate bags until each group has gotten a chance to practice with each set.
  • Instruct students to place the bags in the shoe box.
  • Instruct learners to discuss the relationship between the multiplication facts and the division facts with their partners.
  • Engage the class in a discussion about how understanding the relationship is helpful when learning multiplication and division facts. Explain that it helps us to be quicker and more automatic with our math facts when we can see the relationship between the two operations. Share that our brain likes to make connections like these!
(15 minutes)
  • Distribute a copy of the Donut Division worksheet to each student, and display a copy on the document camera. Model answering the first question, and write the multiplication fact along with the answer.
  • Instruct students to complete the worksheet, and remind them to write the multiplication fact along with the answer under each problem.


  • Instruct students to complete Alex's Multiplication Table to obtain fluency of math facts.


  • Direct students to practice with a partner using index cards in sandwich bags to obtain fluency. Have your students practice with the blocks to see division and multiplication happen visually.
(6 minutes)
  • Put students into small groups and have them discuss their answers from the Donut Division worksheet. Challenge them to use the key term from the lesson (fact family), and explain how they know that their answers are correct. Encourage students to share why they agree or disagree with their peers.
  • Circulate while students discuss and observe their confidence and proficiency with talking about the specific problems and the operations of multiplication and division.
(5 minutes)
  • Call on nonvolunteers to demonstrate their fluency with multiplication and division facts.
  • Remind students that if they are comfortable with multiplication, they should use that to help them gain confidence with division. Emphasize the connection between multiplication and division, and that their relationship can support us as we build our fact fluency.

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