EL Support Lesson
Sentence Parts and Making Predictions
Students will be able to make a prediction based on evidence in a fictional text.
- Students will be able to identify complete sentences, with subjects and predicates, in writing using a phrase bank.
- Students will be able to make predictions with textual evidence using strategic partnering and a graphic organizer.
- Act out the beginning of an activity that your students could clearly predict. For example, wash your hands, get your lunch, place a napkin on your lap, and sit down at a table. Or put on running shoes, have a drink of water, do some stretches, and check the time. Ask students to predict what they think you will do next (e.g., "I think you will eat lunch" or "I think you will go running"). Then, ask them what evidence they saw to prove their prediction (e.g., washing hands or putting on running shoes).
- Explain to students that we often make predictions about people and things we see throughout our day. Tell them that it is also important to know how to make predictions as we read because it helps us interact with and understand the text more deeply.
- Tell students that today they will practice making predictions in short fictional texts.
Building academic language
- Explain that before learning about how to make predictions, students will learn some new vocabulary words and practice some sentence-related grammar concepts.
- Write the eight vocabulary words on the board and read them aloud. Have students conduct a self-assessment of their knowledge of these words by using the following scale:
- I have not heard the word before and do not know what it means.
- I have heard of the word but do not know what it means.
- I know what the word means and could explain it to someone.
- I know what the word means, could explain it to someone, and use it in a sentence.
- Display the vocabulary knowledge scale so students can see it and have them show you the number of fingers that corresponds to each vocabulary word. Use this brief self-assessment to determine how much time to dedicate to each vocabulary word.
- Provide student-friendly definitions, along with images and examples, of the three Tier 1 words, in English and L1 if applicable. Clarify any misunderstandings.
- Display a copy of a Frayer Model on the document camera, and model how you complete each section for the word conscientious.
- Divide students into four groups and hand out a different colored pen or marker to each group. Post a large copy of the Frayer Model in each of the four corners of the classroom (one for prediction, evidence, subject, and predicate).
- Place a group of students at each of the four words and instruct them to complete one section of the model with their marker. Then, have them rotate to the next Frayer Model to add more information for the next word. Each rotation should last about a minute. When all parts of the Frayer Models are complete, have students stay in their corner to read aloud the information on each word. Correct any errors or misconceptions, and leave the models posted for the duration of the lesson.
- Tell students that in preparation for making predictions in texts, they will first practice identifying complete sentences and the two main components of a sentence: the subject and predicate.
- Distribute a copy of the Identifying Subjects and Predicates worksheet to each student and display a teacher copy on the document camera.
- Read aloud the teaching box and example at the top of the worksheet. Emphasize that the subject of a sentence is usually a noun or a pronoun that could be singular or plural. Review the definition of a noun (people, place, idea, or thing) and pronoun (a word that replaces a noun), and list some examples on the board. Reiterate that a predicate usually starts with a verb. Review the definition of a verb, and invite students to think of some verbs in pairs. Have students share out their examples. Record students' ideas.
- Explain to students that every complete sentence must have a subject and a predicate. Read the directions of the first part of the worksheet, and model the first problem for students. Show how you identify the subject and the predicate in order to determine that it is a complete sentence. Mention that when a sentence does not have a subject or a predicate, it is called a fragment, or an incomplete sentence.
- Instruct students to complete problems 2–6 independently. Then, have them check their answers with a partner.
- Continue the same process with the second and third parts of the worksheet (read directions, model one problem, have students complete the exercises, and review their answers).
- Circulate and offer assistance to students.
- Tell students that they will now practice how to make solid predictions based on text evidence when they read short sections of stories. Emphasize that it is important to make a prediction that is based on a specific reason demonstrated by the text. Even though it is acceptable for the prediction to not be correct (i.e., it does not end up happening in the text), it is important that each prediction is based on evidence. Something the text states must help us make our prediction.
- Inform students that they will focus on making predictions using complete sentences with the help of sentence frames, such as the following examples:
- "I predict ____ because the text says ____."
- "When ____ (text evidence or sentence from text), I predict ____ (prediction)."
- Divide students into partners that work well together. Hand out a copy of the Making Predictions - Matching worksheet to each pair of students. Read all of the sentences aloud and clarify any challenging vocabulary.
- Show students how you match the first sentence to the prediction by drawing a line from the first sentence to the second. (Think aloud, "Since Martin was not happy about his grade in math, the prediction that states that he would ask more questions in math class makes sense because that way he might learn more math skills.") Remind them the first sentence must connect with the prediction sentence.
- Once all pairs have completed the activity, invite a few students to share their work by using one of the sentence frames mentioned above. For example, "When Joelle notices that Martin didn't do well on his test, I predict that she will offer to help Martin study for the next math test."
- Distribute the Learning to Make Predictions worksheet to each learner. Read aloud the directions and have a student rephrase them.
- Model aloud how you make a prediction after reading the first paragraph in the worksheet. Be sure to use complete sentences. For example, "I predict Mariah will cry in her room because the text says she is conscientious and because it says she grabbed the box of tissues."
- Assign students the task of filling out the rest of the graphic organizer (problems 2–4) independently.
Additional EL adaptations
- If the EL is literate in their home language (L1), provide home language resources such as bilingual dictionaries.
- Allow Beginning ELs to complete the Sentence Level section in partners.
- Limit the options in the Making Predictions - Matching worksheet by removing two of the sentences in each column (i.e., leave three predictions for students to match in pairs).
- Highlight key parts of the text in the Learning How to Make Predictions worksheet that will help students make a prediction.
- Invite Advanced ELs to contribute to classroom discussions first, and rephrase or repeat what other students say.
- Allow Advanced ELs to complete the work on their own or without the support of sentence frames.
Formative Assessment of Academic Language(4 minutes)
- Read aloud the following text: "Mr. Brown was tired of hearing his two children fighting in the backseat. They had been in the car for three hours, driving to Grandma Keen's house for the holidays, and the kids had been arguing the whole way. He stopped the car and..."
- Hand out an index card to each student and have them write their name and a prediction for what they think would happen next. Remind them to write in a complete sentence, using the sentence frames from earlier.
- Have students switch their index card with a table partner, and have the partner circle the subject and underline the predicate in the sentence. Then, have them check with the partner that wrote the sentence. If both partners agree on the identification of the subject and predicate, they should give you a thumbs up.
- Circulate the classroom during this formative assessment to check for understanding.
Review and closing(3 minutes)
- Ask a few students to share their predictions, with text evidence, from the asessment section.
- Review that predictions are what we think will happen next in a story. Ask students to think-pair-share about why they think it is important to cite evidence when they make predictions in texts. Discuss as a whole group, with the following sentence stem as support, as needed: "I think it is important to cite text evidence when making predictions because ____."