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Students will be able to explain how to solve a subtraction word problem. Students will be able to illustrate subtraction word problems. Students will be able to solve written subtraction word problems.
- Show class the What's Missing? Subtraction Song to introduce the topic.
- Tell students that they will be learning how to solve subtraction word problems.
- Remind the class that subtraction is taking away one amount from another amount.
- Before showing the video, activate prior knowledge of insects by asking students to name different insects, or bugs.
- Teach students that a "hive" is a place where bees live, and a "moth" is an insect similar to a fly.
- After watching the video write the equation 7 = 10 - 3 on the board. Check student understanding of the equal sign by asking students to give you a thumbs up if the equation is true.
- Write 6 = 9 - 5 on the board, and ask students to give a thumbs up if the equation is true. Continue with a few more examples to build understanding of the equal sign.
Explicit Instruction/Teacher modeling(20 minutes)
- Write the steps of solving a subtraction story problem on the whiteboard. For example: Circle the numbers, underline the question, solve the number sentence, and answer the question (CUSA).
- Explain each step to the class. For example: Circle the numbers: Circle the numbers they see to choose what numbers will be used in their subtraction number sentence. Underline the question: Underline the question to find clue words telling to subtract. Note clue words such as left, take away, less than, and remain. Solve the number sentence: Use the minus and equal sign to solve the problem. Answer the question: Use a complete sentence to answer the question.
- Sing the following subtraction story song to the tune of Sally the Camel with the class to help them remember the steps: First, we circle the numbers (x3) to solve a word problem. Second, we underline the question (x3) and find the clue words. Third, we solve the number sentence (x3) using the minus and equal sign. Fourth, we answer the question (x3), and then we are complete! How neat.
- Write a subtraction equation from the song on the board, and label the minus sign and the equal sign.
- Teach students gestures for "circle" and "underline."
- Translate the steps to solve a story problem to students' home language (L1) if possible.
- Tell students to explain the steps to solve a story problem to a partner in their own words.
Guided Practice(10 minutes)
- Write a subtraction story problem on the board. For example: A farmer had 4 chickens, and 2 ran away. How many chickens are left?
- Call up enough students to illustrate the problem.
- Solve the problem with the class, saying aloud the steps and performing them.
- Repeat with another subtraction story problem and different students.
- Model following and checking off each step as the class solves the problem. Support student volunteers to circle the numbers, underline the question, write and solve a number sentence, and write a complete sentence to answer the question.
- Tell students to repeat, "Four minus two equals two" as you point below the equation.
- Have students follow the steps to solve subtraction story problems in small groups with minimal support.
- Ask students to turn and talk to a partner to explain how they could use addition to check their answer.
Independent working time(15 minutes)
- Tell the class that they will show word problems with counters.
- Demonstrate how they will read the problem and use the counters to find the answers.
- Give each student enough counters to solve the problems.
- Write a problem on the board.
- Monitor students as they work on illustrating the problem.
- Ask various students how they got their answers.
- Distribute the counters and ask students what shape they are (circles). Tell students that they are called "counters" because they are used to count things. Tell students to point to the counters and repeat, "counters."
- Write the steps to solve the problem on the board, and model with counters.
- Show the whole amount of counters
- Subtract one part of the counters
- Count how many counters are left in the remaining part
- Instruct students to write a subtraction word problem, and then find a partner to solve the problem using counters.
- Ask students to explain how they know that their answers are correct. If students make errors, ask them to explain their thinking. Encourage self-correction of errors rather than rushing to provide a correct answer.
- Enrichment: Give the advanced students more difficult problems to illustrate with their counters. For example, give them problems with larger numbers for more of a challenge. Place additional word problems on the board and have these students complete them on the other side of their worksheets. Give them the second Math Subtraction worksheet to practice.
- Support: Give your students counters to use as they complete their worksheets.
- Give each student a Math Subtraction worksheet to complete.
- Check students' answers to measure understanding.
- Do the first problem together as a class. Model following the steps to first understand what the problem is asking, and then solve the problem.
- Require students to include a complete sentence with their answer.
- Ask students to explain how they could check that their answers are correct.
Review and closing(5 minutes)
- Sing What's Missing? Subtraction Song with the class again.
- Place a subtraction story problem on the board.
- Have the students walk you through how to solve it.
- Review ways to solve subtraction problems, such as using counters or drawing a picture.
- Ask students what helped them to solve the problems using the sentence frame, "I solved the problem by ____."
- Tell students to compare and contrast they way they solved the subtraction problems with a partner. If students got different answers, have them work together to self-correct errors.