Inflectional Endings: -ing and -ed
In this reading and writing lesson plan, first and second graders will learn how adding the inflectional endings -ing and -ed can change a word's meaning from present tense to past tense (e.g., walking vs. walked). With the help of two entertaining short videos, teacher-led examples, and a unique dice game, students children will practice adding different inflectional endings to regular verbs while reinforcing important spelling patterns (such as dropping the silent "e" or doubling the consonant).
Students will be able to recognize and write words that contain the inflectional endings -ing and -ed.
- Gather students together for the start of lesson.
- Explain that today they're going to learn how changing the end of a word by adding an inflectional ending can change its meaning. Define an inflectional ending as a group of letters added to the end of a word.
- Outline the two different types of inflectional endings your class will be studying today. Tell your class that the ending -ing shows that something is in the present tense, or happening right now. Write an example of this (such as I am working) on the whiteboard.
- Explain that the ending -ed shows that something is in the past tense, or already happened. Write an example of this (such as I worked) on the whiteboard.
- Tell your class that you're going to play video clips that explain more about inflectional endings. Play -ing - Shock and Jared by The Electric Company and Between the Lions: B.B. the King of Beasts Sings "It's Over Now" for your class.
Explicit Instruction/Teacher modeling(10 minutes)
- Ask your students to share words they heard and saw in the clips. Review these base words, or words with basic meanings, with the class by writing them on the whiteboard or chart paper. For example: meet, kick, twirl, walk, rush, gobble, finish, and happen.
- Add -ing and -ed to each base word and review how it changes the meaning of the base word to either past or present tense.
- If you're teaching this as a follow up lesson to Inflectional Endings: -ing, review the concept of dropping the silent e when adding -ing. If not, simply share this rule with your class. Use a silent e word, such as share, to model how this is done.
- Review or introduce the double consonant rule as well, explaining that if a base word has a short vowel + consonant ending then you must double the consonant when adding -ing. Use a word that follows this structure, such as chop, to model how this is done.
Guided Practice(5 minutes)
- Provide each student with a mini whiteboard and dry erase marker.
- Write the following words one at a time on your classroom whiteboard or chart paper: sob, plan, rain, like, park, open.
- Ask students to write the past (-ed) and present (-ing) tense of the word on their whiteboards. After each word, have students hold up their whiteboards to share. Then move to the next word.
- Remind students of the spelling rules (drop the e, double the consonant) as needed.
- Tell the class that they will now practice using inflectional endings on their own.
Independent working time(15 minutes)
- Go over the instructions for the Roll It! Inflectional Endings Dice worksheet with the class by demonstrating how to construct the dice and play with a partner. Send students to work on the activity in pairs.
- Circulate around the room and offer support as needed.
- Gather students who need additional support together and practice adding -ing and -ed to base words as a group.
- Facilitate playing Roll It together with teacher support.
- For students who finish quickly and/or need a more challenging activity, have them use the past/present tense of each base word from the game Roll It to write either a short story or silly sentences.
- Collect the Roll It recording sheets and assess whether students were able to correctly change each base word into the past and present form using -ed and -ing endings.
Review and closing(5 minutes)
- After the 15 minutes of independent work time has concluded, ask students to return to the rug with their recording sheets.
- Review the rules as a whole class by writing a word on the board, and having students say the word aloud and tell you what you need to do to add either -ing or -ed. Discuss student questions as needed.