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Skip Counting to Understand Multiplication
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Students will be able to use skip counting as a strategy to multiply two single-digit factors.
- Ask your students to join you as you count by two aloud. Count to 20.
- Tell students, "We just skip counted by two."
- Review: What is skip counting? (Counting by a number other than one.) Why do we do it? (To count numbers or items faster.)
- Relate skip counting to multiplication (i.e., skip counting can help us understand multiplication because it helps us count in equal groups to reach a number, like counting ten groups of two to get to 20).
- Give students the definition of skip counting in their home language (L1).
- Ask students to restate the relationship between skip counting and multiplication in their own words.
- Have them turn and talk to a partner before sharing with the whole group.
Explicit Instruction/Teacher modeling(10 minutes)
- Draw a number line on the board and show students how they would make ‘jumps’ along the number line to skip count by twos.
- Point out the equal sized jumps and explain that when they are skip counting, they are actually counting equal sized groups.
- Display a hundreds chart inside plastic sleeve so that it is wipeable.
- Count by twos and, using a wipeable pen, circle each multiple of two up to 20 on the chart.
- Explain, "If I wanted to know what 2 times 7 was, I would count by twos 7 times." Demonstrate by counting seven circled boxes.
- Wipe clean and repeat with multiples of 5.
- Ask, "How can I figure out what 5 times 8 is?" Have students count with you as you count eight circled boxes to get to 40.
- Provide students with their own copy of a number line to use as they follow along with the teacher modeling. Help them to label the completed number line with key terms so they can use the tool as a reference for the remainder of the lesson.
- Define key terms with words and images that students will use as they discuss skip counting throughout the lesson. Include words such as multiple, factor, product, and equal group.
Guided Practice(10 minutes)
- Have students pair up and hand out a Skip Counting to 100 worksheet to each student.
- Guide students through one ‘round’ of the worksheet by skip counting to 100 by twos, color coding each multiple.
- With their partner, have students skip count by three, color coding the multiples as they count.
- Stop between each round of skip counting and ask students to use the numbers they color coded on their chart to identify a product (i.e. what is 7 times 12?).
- Continue until all factors to nine are color coded in different colors.
- Pair students with a supportive partner or a peer with the same L1, if possible.
- Ask students to restate the directions for how to determine what should be color coded on the worksheet. Provide sentence stems with sequence words to help them explain (e.g., First, Then, Next).
- Support student conversation about products by providing a sentence stem. For example, "The product of ____ and ____ is ____."
Independent working time(20 minutes)
- Hand out the Skip Count to Multiply worksheet and review the example.
- Have students complete the worksheet independently.
- Circulate and offer support as needed.
- Go over the worksheet with the class.
- Invite students to work in a small group at the teacher table. Provide personalized support and ask questions to get students talking about their process and reasoning.
- Give students the opportunity to go over their answers and explanations with a partner after they have completed the work independently. Have them practice explaining how they worked through the problem to find an answer.
- Provide sentence stems for students to use as they share answers with the class. For example, "____ jumps of ____ is ____."
- Provide a hundreds chart with some multiples highlighted and have students fill in missing multiples using skip counting.
- Review multiples of two, five, and 10 using the Skip Counting Chart worksheet.
- Have students skip count starting at a number greater than 100 (i.e., skip count by threes, starting at 246).
- In small groups of five to seven, have students skip count popcorn style by having each successive student shout out a multiple of a given number (i.e. student one says 6, student two says 12, student three says 18). Encourage students to skip count as high as possible.
- Listen in to groups to check for understanding.
- Have students complete the activity in a small group with the teacher. Stop periodically to ask students to explain how they knew they said the correct multiple.
- Ask students to rephrase the instructions for the activity to a partner and then for the whole group.
Review and closing(5 minutes)
- Show students the video of skip counting songs or teach them to sing along using a CD (see suggested media).
- Ask students to share how the skip counting song or video is helpful to them. Allow them to draw a picture to support their explanation.
- Encourage students to jot down notes during the song or video about what they think is an important lesson from today's practice with skip counting.
- Have students share the main points of the song or video with the class.