Independent Reading 

Students read silently by themselves and at their own pace (Taylor, 1993).  The selections must be at students' reading level in order for them to comprehend what they're reading.

Reading Aloud to Students

Teachers use the interactive read-aloud procedure to share selections that are appropriate for students' interest level but too difficult for them to read by themselves (Barrentine, 1996).

Guided Reading

Teachers scaffold students' reading to teach reading strategies (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, 2001).  Guided reading is conducted with small groups of students who read at the same level.

Shared Reading

Students follow along as the teacher reads a selection aloud (Fisher & Medvic, 2000).  Primary-grade teachers often use big books-enlarged versions of the selection-for shared reading (Holdaway, 1979).